Spermatogenesis Vs Oogenesis- Definition, 18 Differences, Examples

Spermatogenesis Vs Oogenesis Overview

Spermatogenesis Definition

Spermatogenesis is the process of developing mature sperm cells from immature sperm cells through a sequence of mitotic and meiotic divisions.

  • The development of mature male gametes is the consequence of the male variant of gametogenesis.
  • Spermatogenesis, which is necessary for sexual reproduction, must take place under ideal circumstances.
  • The entire process of spermatogenesis happens at several phases and in various male reproductive system elements.
  • The male gamete matures in the epididymis, where it is further retained after ejaculation, and the process starts in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
  • Male spermatogenesis starts after puberty and lasts the rest of a person’s life. Despite the fact that sperm are continually generated in the testes, not all testes can produce sperm simultaneously.
  • In the testes, sperm can be discovered in several developmental stages.
  • A primordial spermatocyte is the starting point, and it goes through several modifications before maturing into a motile sperm cell.
  • An immature germ cell can take up to 74 days to grow into a mature male gamete, and several intermittent resting phases occur throughout that period.
  • After meiosis, one main spermatocyte produces four functional spermatozoa, each of which differentiates into a sperm cell on its own.
  • The three phases of spermatocytogenesis, spermatidogenesis, and spermiogenesis are necessary to complete the process of spermatogenesis.
  • Before the spermatozoa generated eventually reach the epididymis and acquire motility, all of these phases are carried out within the testes.
  • A motile cell called human sperm has a head, a body, and a long tail. The acrosomes that make up the head produce enzymes and aid in sperm entrance into the ovum.
  • Several glands and their by products control the entire spermatogenesis process. The pituitary gland’s luteinizing hormone controls the generation of testosterone and the development of sperm in the male reproductive system.
  • The pituitary and the testes together release follicle-stimulating hormone, which controls the entire spermatogenesis process.
  • The hormone testosterone is in charge of turning on the genes that produce male gametes, and it also gives the developing sperm cell nutrition.
  • Sexual reproduction is based on the process of spermatogenesis, which allows for genetic recombination and leads to genetic diversity across species.

Oogenesis Definition

Oogenesis, which takes place in the female reproductive system, is the process by which a female gamete or ovum develops through a sequence of mitotic and meiotic divisions.

  • Male mature gametes are formed as a consequence of the female variant of gametogenesis.
  • Oogenesis begins prenatally, or before the birth of the female infant. It starts about 8 to 20 weeks after the foetus starts to grow and lasts until the baby is born.
  • Therefore, every egg cell that will be discharged from the ovaries during a female’s reproductive life is present in a newborn female kid. We refer to these cells as “primary ova.”
  • Prior to ovulation, the primary ova are dormant; following ovulation, they mature. While some of these cells take up to 40 years to develop, others never do.
  • The menstrual cycle, which refers to the monthly periodic variations in the release of sexual hormones as well as changes in the anatomy of the ovaries and other sexual organs, characterises a female’s reproductive life.
  • The ovarian cycle, which is involved in the development and maturity of the female gamete, describes the process of oogenesis.
  • The follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase are the three stages that make up the entire oogenesis process.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are first released, which cause the ovarian cells to develop into primary follicles.
  • The cell divides into two bigger secondary oocytes and a smaller polar body as a result of the mitotic and meiotic divisions that these follicles thereafter go through.
  • The ovum is subsequently released from the secondary oocyte and travels throughout the ovary until fertilisation. The cell degenerates into a corpus luteum and is excreted from the body throughout the menstrual cycle if fertilisation does not take place.
  • The newly produced ovum is immobile and stays in the fallopian tube to await sperm fertilisation. An oval structure known as an ovum contains a yolk or plasma that gives cells nutrition.
  • Only up to menopause does the process of oogenesis continue before the ovary stops producing primary oocytes.
  • Oogenesis is regulated by pituitary hormones, much like spermatogenesis is. In addition, progesterone hormone is released by the corpus luteum to control the menstrual cycle.
  • Oogenesis is a crucial biological process that ensures animal sexual reproduction. It is in charge of transferring half of the chromosomes that will be given to the infant.

Key Differences (Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis)

Basis for comparison Spermatogenesis Oogenesis
Definition Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of mature sperm cells through a series of mitotic and meiotic divisions along with metamorphic changes in the immature sperm cell. Oogenesis is the process of formation of female gamete or ovum through a series of mitotic and meiotic divisions occurring in the female reproductive system.
Nature of the process It is the male version of gametogenesis which results in the formation of mature male gametes. It is the female version of gametogenesis which results in the formation of mature male gametes.
Stages The process of spermatogenesis is completed through the following three stages; spermatocytogenesis, spermatidogenesis, and spermiogenesis. The overall process of oogenesis is divided into three stages; the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase.
Occurs in The overall process of spermatogenesis occurs in the testes until the sperm moves to the epididymis and gains motility. The overall process of oogenesis occurs in the ovary until the mature ovum moves to the fallopian tube.
Continuity of the process Spermatogenesis is a continuous process that begins with puberty and continuous until death. The early stages of oogenesis begin in the fetal stage while the rest continue after puberty till menopause.
Occurrence Spermatogenesis occurs continuously, and all spermatogonia undergo meiosis, producing sperms all the time. Oogenesis occurs for one egg cell at a time, and some cells might require many years to reach maturation.
Rate of production Spermatogenesis forms millions of sperms every day. Oogenesis releases one ovum per month.
Develops from The male gamete develops from the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules of the testes. The female gamete develops from the germinal epithelium lining the ovary.
Starting cell The starting cell during spermatogenesis is the primary spermatocyte. The starting cell during oogenesis is the primary oocyte.
Functional cell produced from division The meiotic division of primary spermatocyte results in four spermatids, each of which develops into a sperm cell. The meiotic division of primary oocyte only forms a single functional secondary oocyte.
Cytogenesis Cytogenesis in spermatogenesis forms two equal cells. Cytogenesis in oogenesis forms two unequal cells; larger secondary oocyte and a smaller polar body.
Sertoli cells Sertoli cells are found in the testes that provide nourishment to the developing male gamete. Sertoli cells are not found in the ovary, and the nourishment to the female gamete is provided by the yolk present around the ovum.
Growth phase The growth phase during spermatogenesis is shorter than in oogenesis. The growth phase during oogenesis is longer than in spermatogenesis.
Resting phase There is no resting phase during the spermatogenesis process. The resting phase occurs during oogenesis from the embryonic stage till puberty.
Size of the gametes The male gametes formed after spermatogenesis are smaller in size than the female gametes. The female gametes formed after oogenesis are larger in size than the male gametes.
Motility of the gamete The male gamete formed is motile. The female gamete formed is non-motile.
Nuclear condensation Nuclear condensation can be seen in a male gamete. Nuclear condensation doesn’t take place in the ovum.
Food preservation The male gamete stores less amount of food within itself. The female gamete stores a lot more food within itself.


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