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Monocot Vs Dicot Flower- Definition, Structure, 6 Differences, Examples

Monocot Vs Dicot Flower Overview

Definition of Monocot Flower

Condensed branch regions called monocot flowers are designed specifically for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

  • The main distinguishing feature of monocot flowers is that their floral components often come in sets of three or multiples of three.
  • In order to distinguish between monocot and dicot plants, it is possible to observe flowers and their component parts.
  • Although all monocot plants share a similar pattern of floral elements, there are significant differences between distinct species in terms of bloom colour, size, shape, and anatomical arrangement.
  • Similar to dicot flowers, monocot flowers are made up of vegetative and reproductive components.
  • The calyx and corolla, which make up the vegetative portions, are responsible for protecting the reproductive organs and luring various pollinators. Due to their tiny size and consequent lightness, the majority of monocot flowers are pollinated by wind and water.
  • Some monocot flowers have a structure called a perianth as well as an undifferentiated calyx and corolla.
  • The majority of monocot flowers have all four floral members in full bloom. However, the pieces’ order and quantity may change.
  • A bract is the portion of the stalk where the blooms emerge. The length of the flower stem, or pedicel, determines the size of the blossom.
  • The thalamus is the thick top portion of the pedicel where the floral components are located. Depending on the stage of the flower, the thalamus’ size varies between species and even within the same plant.

Definition of Dicot Flower

The dicot flower is the plant’s reproductive organ and is distinguished by having floral components that are arranged in groups of four or five.

  • The distinction between monocot and dicot plants is made using the quantity of floral components or floral leaves. Because some plants’ blooms might be smaller or have more components than others, the distinction is not always accurate.
  • Dicot flowers, which have all four flower whorls, are essentially finished, unisexual blooms.
  • The existence of a triporate pollen structure, which has three holes or furrows in the pollen, is a crucial indicator of how differently dicot flowers are differentiated.
  • Within dicot plants, or even within the same species, the bloom can vary in colour, shape, symmetry, and size. Radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry are the two types of symmetry that are most frequently found in dicot flowers.
  • Since sexual reproduction is the primary purpose of flowers, the structure of the blooms can be altered to suit the needs of the plant.
  • The bract portion of the stem, which is connected to the stem via the pedicel, is where dicot flowers grow. The pedicel appears as a protruding stalk that holds up various floral components.
  • Due to their size and colour, dicot flowers are typically pollinated by insects and animals.

Structure of Monocot and Dicot Flowers

  • Although the elements of monocot and dicot flowers are the same, their quantity and arrangement can vary. The following components can be used to understand the structure of monocot and dicot flowers:

1. Petal

  • Flowers’ corolla, which is the second whorl of the flower, is made up of petals. The whorl is located above the flower’s first whorl, the calyx.
  • Flowers include leaves called petals, which are often delicate, thin, and colourful to attract various pollinators, including animals and insects.
  • Petal attraction for pollination and protection of the flower’s reproductive organs are their two primary purposes.
  • The flower’s petals may or may not have a consistent size and shape.
  • Flowers are referred to as symmetrical flowers if the shape and size of their petals are uniform, whereas asymmetrical flowers have a variety of petals.
  • The phenomenon known as gamopetalous refers to flowers in which one or more petals have fused together to create a single unit.
  • On the basis of the quantity of petals, monocot and dicot plants may be distinguished. Dicots have four, five, or multiples of those numbers of petals. The number of petals in monocots is three or a multiple of three.
  • The distinction between monocot and dicot flowers is made on the basis of the number of petals.

2. Stamen

  • The male reproductive organs of flowers, known as stamens, resemble microsporophylls morphologically.
  • The third whorl of the flower is formed by the androecium, which is made up of stamens. Both fertile and sterile stamens can be found in the androecium. While sterile stamens are covered with staminodes, fertile stamens generate pollen grains.
  • Some plants may even have stamens that resemble petals and are vividly coloured.
  • Petaloid stamens, which appear in plants like Canna, are what are known as these.
  • In monocots, the number of stamens is three or a multiple of three, and each stamen has two separate components;

A.Anther

  • A stamen’s anther, which contains microsporangia that create and store microspores or pollen grains, is its terminal fertile portion.
  • A single anther is made up of unique microsporangia that develop into sacs or pockets inside the anther that are also known as anther sacs or pollen sacs. Various plants have different microsporangia counts.
  • The tapetum, a layer of nutritive tissue that encloses the pollen mother cells, lines the inside of the microsporangium.
  • The cells divide during meiosis to produce haploid microspores. The microspores can exist both alone and together as tetrads.
  • The pollen grain, an immature microgametophyte, is created when the microspore undergoes mitotic division.
  • These pollen grains can be released through a hole in the anther. Additionally, the pollen grains feature ridges or apertures that are necessary for fertilisation to occur.
  • The number of furrows on the pollen grains allows for the separation of monocot and dicot blooms. While dicot pollen grains contain three unique apertures, or furrows, monocot pollen grains only have one.

B.Filament

  • An anther is attached to the rest of the flower’s components by a stalk called the filament. A connective, which is an extension of the filament made up of conducting strands, joins the filament to the anther.
  • The stamen is always made up of a single filament connected to a single anther.

3. Pistil (Carpel)

  • The centrally situated pistil, also known as a carpel, is a female reproductive organ in plants that makes up the centre or innermost whorl of the flower.
  • The megasporophyll in plants that houses the female reproductive gametes that together make up the gynoecium and the pistil are physically similar. It is possible for there to be one or more distinct pistils in the gynoecium.
  • The ovary, other structures, and one or more carpels may all be linked to form a single ovary in a single pistil, which is thought to be made up of carpels.
  • The structures that make up the pistil are as follows:

a.Stigma

  • The stigma is the spherical or flat apical portion of the pistil where the pollen is received during pollination.
  • To collect the pollen grains, the stigma is frequently feathery or sticky. The stigma receives the pollen grains, which are subsequently transferred to other parts of the pistil.

b. Style

  • The pollen tube that carries the pollen grains from the stigma to the ovary develops through the pistil’s tall, pillar-like style.
  • Some plants could lack a style because the stigma may abut the ovary directly.
  • When present, the style is a hollow tube that allows a pollen tube to develop during fertilisation.

c. Ovary

  • The ovary is the swelling base of the pistil and is made up of tissue ridges that contain one or more eggs, or ovules.
  • The locule, or cell, a compartment in the ovary, is where the ovules stay. The gynoecial appendages are where the ovules are born.

4. Sepal

  • The calyx, a vegetative component of the flower that shields the flower in the bud and during the last stage of blossoming, is made up of the sepals.
  • The calyx, the outermost whorl of a flower, is made up of the sepals. The calyx is particularly noticeable when the flower is in the bud stage, but after blossoming it either withers or becomes vestigial.
  • The exterior sterile area of an object known as a perianth is made up of sepals and petals, both of which are modified leaves.
  • Merosity, a term used to describe how many sepals are present in a flower, is frequently used to classify plants into distinct groupings.
  • When a plant’s sepals and petals have the same colour or when its petals are missing but its sepals are colourful, the word “tepal” is used.

5. Receptacle

  • The swelling portion of the pedicel known as the receptacle or torus is where various flower components are connected.
  • While the receptacle in some flowers may develop into an edible portion of the fruit, in others it is decreased after fertilisation.

6. Pedicel/Peduncle

  • The stalk that joins the flower to the stem, or pedicel, is made up of the same tissues as the stem.
  • Sessile flowers are those that are directly connected to the stem or branches of the plant and may not have a pedicel in some species of plants.

Functions of Monocot Vs Dicot Flower

  • The shared purposes of monocot and dicot flowers include the following:
  • Different pollinators, such as insects and animals, are attracted to diverse flowers by their different colours and forms.
  • Flowers are made up of the reproductive components of the flower that are necessary for plants to reproduce sexually.
  • In several civilizations, flowers are frequently used as decorations or ornamental items during events and ceremonies.
  • Some plants’ flowers may contain nectar, which attracts various insects and feeds them, facilitating the passage of pollen grains.
  • Fruits that are used as a source of food and nutrition ultimately develop from the blossoms.

Monocot Vs Dicot Flower (6 Key Differences)

Characteristics Monocot Flower Dicot Flower
Definition Monocot flowers are condensed shoot regions that are specialized for the function of sexual reproduction. The dicot flower is the reproductive part of the plant, which is characterized by the presence of flower parts that occur in multiples of four or five.
Number of flower parts Monocot flower has flower parts that occur in threes or multiples of threes. Dicot flowers have flower parts that occur in fours and fives or their multiples.
Petals The number of petals in monocot flowers usually is either three or six. In some cases, the petals might be fused. The number of petals in dicot flowers is four or five or their multiples.
Pollen grains Pollen grains of monocot flowers have a single pore or furrow. Pollen grains of dicot flowers have three pores or furrows.
Perianth Some monocot plants might have a perianth (undifferentiated calyx and corolla). Dicot plants have differentiated calyx and corolla.
Pollination Most of the monocot flowers are usually wind-pollinated. Most of the dicot flowers are usually insect-pollinated.

Examples of Monocot Flowers

  1. Tulip flowers
  • A huge group of plants known as tulips includes roughly 3000 different flowering plant species. Except for blue, tulip flowers come in practically every colour except blue.
  • Depending on the cultivar, tulips have different sizes, shapes, and forms. Tulips often appear as cup-shaped flowers, though.
  • Six smooth or ruffled petals make up each of the six petals that make up a tulip flower. The petals of certain tulips are all the same hue, whereas those of other varieties may have stripes, swirls, or fading edges.
  • When a flower is in its ultimate condition, it contains six sepal units, which are located at the base of the bloom.
  • Instead of distinct petals and sepals, certain tulip species may have tepals or a perianth.
  1. Daffodil flower
  • The fact that daffodil blooms have a perianth and a corona distinguishes them from the majority of monocot flowers.
  • The corona is the cup-shaped area of the flower that sets it apart from other flowers and enhances its beauty.
  • The stamens are encircled by the corona, a delicate structure resembling a petal with frilled edges.
  • An entire perianth is made up of six petals. The corona is encircled by the perianth, creating a trumpet-shaped flower.

Examples of Dicot Flowers

  1. Sunflower
  • The sunflower plant’s bloom is made up of a flower head with several disc flowers, each of which is at a distinct stage of development.
  • The ray blossoms, which have five elongated petals joined together to create straplike structures, make up the flower’s vibrant outer layer.
  • The ray blooms are typically golden, although there may also be orange-yellow and reddish variations.
  • Disk flowers make up the remainder of the flower’s body, which has a big discoidal head. The word “floret” describes a single disc flower.
  • The petal and stamen of the epigynous florets are joined to the ovary.
  • Then, a basal ovary, scales, and a sharp bract encircle each of the florets. Five joined petals make up the corolla of the florets.
  • The florets are grouped in the head in the shape of arcs that radiate outward from the centre.
  1. Marigold flower
  • A marigold flower is made up of a complicated cluster of many blooms, with disc florets and ray blossoms.
  • Ray flowers make up the flower’s outer section. The ray blooms have stamens attached to them and are often darker in colour.
  • The centre of the flower, which is paler and has one stamen in the centre, is where the disc florets are located.
  • At the base of the flower, known as the receptacle, the ray and disc florets are joined together. The fused calyx protects the receptacle and lower tubular area of the flowers.

References

  • Smyth, David R. “Morphogenesis of flowers–our evolving view.” The Plant cell vol. 17,2 (2005): 330-41. doi:10.1105/tpc.104.030353
  • Scutt, Charlie P, and Michiel Vandenbussche. “Current trends and future directions in flower development research.” Annals of botany vol. 114,7 (2014): 1399-406. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu224
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