Transcription Vs Translation-Definition, 15 Differences, Examples

Transcription Vs Translation Overview

Transcription Definition

Through a sequence of polymerization events mediated by enzymes referred to as DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, the genetic information on a DNA strand is converted into an RNA strand during transcription.

  • The information is transferred from one structure to another at this stage of gene expression.
  • RNA molecules start, lengthen, and finish during transcription. Non-genetic RNA is the RNA that is produced.
  • Transcription happens before translation and happens when a certain gene product is required for a specific tissue at a given moment.
  • During transcription, just one DNA strand, known as the template strand, is duplicated, and the resultant RNA strands are single-stranded messenger RNA (mRNA).
  • A gene’s transcription takes place close to its chromosomal location, which is often a brief section of the chromosome.
  • The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme controls and catalyses the whole transcription process, which is carefully controlled.
  • The first step is to recognise certain DNA sequences known as promoter sequences, which denote the start of the gene.
  • Afterward, two DNA strands are split apart, and RNA polymerase replicates one of the DNA strands.
  • Eukaryotes have a unique and more complicated RNA polymerase than prokaryotes.
  • Because replication adheres to the complementary base pairing principles of DNA, with the exception of the substitution of thymine for uracil, the sequence that results is complementary to the template sequence.
  • In prokaryotes, the entire process is controlled by proteins that act as signals or operators and, after the process is finished, physically inhibit the RNA polymerase.
  • Different proteins known as transcription factors play a role in the control of transcription in eukaryotes.
  • In addition, eukaryotes also undergo post-transcriptional modification, in which the splicing process edits the pre-mRNA (the product of transcription) before the mature mRNA reaches the ribosomes for translation.
  • As a result, during translation, the mRNA serves as a template for the production of proteins.
  • rRNA and tRNA synthesis also take place and are dependent on the transcriptional DNA sequence selected.
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic nuclei contain the enzymes and transcriptional factors necessary for transcription to take place.
  • Some antibiotics, including rifampicin and 8-hydroxyquinoline, block it.
  • The process may be identified by technologies including RT-PCR, DNA microarray, in-situ hybridization, and northern blotting.

Translation Definition

The process of protein synthesis, known as translation, occurs when the data from RNA is represented as polypeptide chains.

  • The information included in the mRNA sequence is translated into an amino acid sequence during the second and final stage of gene expression.
  • The mRNA produced during the transcription of a certain DNA sequence serves as the beginning point for translation. Translation then comes after transcription.
  • The process also requires other types of RNA, such as tRNA, even though the information on the mRNA is used to build the amino acid sequence.
  • Similar to transcription, translation is regulated by a variety of factors and enzymes, with aminoacetyl tRNA synthetase playing a key role.
  • The initiation stage of translation begins with the binding of the messenger RNA (mRNA) to the ribosomes, which is followed by the transfer and binding of the active amino acid to the tRNA.
  • The second stage, known as elongation, occurs when the mRNA and ribosomes move in relation to one another to guarantee that codons are translated one after the other.
  • The resulting polypeptide sequence is separated from the translation complex once all the codons have been translated, and the ribosomes are also liberated to start a new translation process.
  • The polypeptide must be folded to achieve the three-dimensional shape after termination, which is followed by post-translational modification.
  • The polypeptide chains are thus transported to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the cell, where this happens.
  • Other changes are chemical in nature and entail the peptide sequence being joined to functional groups.
  • The association of ribosomal subunits with the translation complex controls the translation process. The ribosomes serve as enzymes to control different processes.
  • Translation takes place in the ribosomes connected to the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes, whereas it does so in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
  • Antibiotics such as tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, erythromycin, anisomycin, cycloheximide, etc. impede translation.
  • Similar to this, techniques like western blotting, immunoblotting, enzyme assays, protein sequencing, etc. may be used to identify the translation process.

Transcription Vs Translation (Table Form)

Basis for Comparison Transcription Translation
Definition Transcription is the process where the genetic information on a DNA strand is transferred into an RNA strand by a series of polymerization reactions catalyzed by enzymes called DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The translation is the process of protein synthesis where the information on RNA is expressed in the form of polypeptide chains.
Gene expression Transcription is the first step in gene expression. The translation is the second and final step of gene expression.
Occurs Transcription occurs before translation. Translation occurs after transcription.
Precursor The precursor of transcription is the non-coding or antisense DNA strand. The precursor of translation is the mRNA produced from transcription.
Raw material The raw material of transcription is the four base pairs of RNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, and cytosine. The twenty amino acids are the raw materials of translation.
Initiation The recognition of specific DNA sequences termed promoter sequences initiates transcription that signifies the beginning of the gene. The binding of mRNA initiates the translation to the ribosomes.
Elongation The elongation of RNA sequences occurs by the binding of complementary base pairs to the new sequence. The elongation of protein occurs by the binding of amino acids.
Product The product of transcription is the mRNA molecule which is complementary to the DNA strand. The product of translation is the peptide sequences encoded from the mRNA sequence.
Synthesis of Transcription results in the synthesis of RNA sequences. Translation results in the synthesis of proteins.
Site Transcription occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, where the enzymes and regulation factors are present. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes.
Enzymes The major enzymes that are responsible for transcription are DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The major enzyme that is responsible for translation is aminoacetyl tRNA synthetase.
Regulation Transcription is regulated by various transcriptional factors in eukaryotes and by operons in prokaryotes. Translational control is mainly brought out by the binding of ribosomal units to the translation complex.
Post-event modifications Post-transcriptional modifications include the editing of pre-mRNA (the result of transcription) by the process of splicing before the mature mRNA reaches ribosomes for translation Post-translational modifications involve the folding of polypeptide chains to obtain the three-dimensional configuration.
Detection The process can be detected by methods like RT-PCR, DNA microarray, in-situ hybridization, and northern blotting. Similarly, the process of translation can be detected by methods like western blotting, immunoblotting,聽enzyme聽assay, Protein sequencing, etc.
Inhibition It is inhibited by some antibiotics like rifampicin and 8-Hydroxyquinoline. The translation is inhibited by antibiotics like tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, erythromycin, anisomycin, cycloheximide, etc.

References and Sources

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