Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes Overview
Prokaryotes are primordial single-celled organisms that lack additional organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus, making them primitive in both structure and function. The terms “pro” and “karyon,” which mean “nucleus” in Greek, are combined to form the word “prokaryote.” As the most basic form of life, prokaryotes are regarded as the earliest living things to exist on Earth.
Characteristics of Prokaryotes
The following is a list of the basic characteristics of prokaryotic cells:
- Prokaryotes typically have a size between 0.1 and 5.0 m, which is much smaller than eukaryotic cells.
- Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes, including cocci, bacilli, spirilla, and vibrio.
- Prokaryotic cells, however, can also be seen in nature with variations on these morphologies.
- Prokaryotic cells are devoid of a membrane-bound nucleus and also other organelles. resulting in their rudimentary cellular arrangement.
- A single chromosome contains the genetic material of prokaryotic cells, which is a single strand of DNA.
- Eukaryotic chromosomes include the crucial histone protein that is absent in prokaryotic organisms.
- Additionally, lacking are the nucleus and the mitotic machinery in prokaryotic cells.
- Prokaryotic cells have a non-cellulosic cell wall that is composed of lipids and carbohydrates.
- Since prokaryotic cells are asexual, they can multiply without the development of gametes.
Prokaryotes Structure (Components/Parts)
Prokaryotic cells have simpler cell organelles than eukaryotic cells, so their structures are less complicated. The following elements or parts are present in the majority of prokaryotic cells:
- This additional outer layer is present on some prokaryotic cells and functions as a defence against outside invaders.
- The polysaccharides that make up the capsule help the cells adhere to different surfaces and keep their internal moisture stable.
- Cell wall
- Inside the capsule, bacterial cells form a strong core that makes up the cell wall.
- The majority of prokaryotes have peptidoglycan cell walls, which are polymers of lipids and carbohydrates.
- However, in archaeal cells, a different component known as pseudopeptidoglycan replaces peptidoglycan in the cell wall. It consists of proteins and various polymers.
- The cell wall provides the cell with its shape and protects the organelles in the cytoplasm.
- Cell membrane/ Plasma membrane/ Cytoplasmic membrane
- A phospholipid-based cell membrane is found underneath the cell wall.
- The phospholipid, which is made up of two hydrophilic fatty acid tails and glycerol connected to a hydrophobic phosphate head, forms a bilayer.
- The phospholipid tails in archaea often link, generating a monolayer rather than a bilayer.
- Prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane that protects the cell while permitting the movement of vital chemicals into and out of the cell.
- The whole area of cells found inside the cell membrane is known as the cytoplasm.
- It consists of a water-based solution containing essential ions and minerals for the cell, as well as a gel-like substance called cytosol.
- In addition, the cytoplasm houses other cellular components, including chromosomes and ribosomes.
- 70S ribosomes are present in all bacterial cells. The 30S and 50S subunits make up the 70S ribosomes.
- Here, the 30S subunit includes 16S rRNA, whereas the 50S subunit has 23S, 5S, and other rRNAs.
- In prokaryotic cells, the ribosome is the most frequently observed internal structure.
- Varied prokaryotic cells have different ribosome sizes and counts.
- Proteins are created from polypeptides, which are created by the ribosome.
- Nucleoid region
- In prokaryotic cells, the nucleoid portion of the cytoplasm houses a single circular chromosome as well as little rings of extrachromosomal DNA known as plasmids.
- Unlike eukaryotes, which have two copies of DNA, the single circular chromosome only has one copy of the genetic material.
- Additionally, bacterial genomes are smaller than eukaryotic genomes in size.
- In turn, the plasmids are autonomously copied away from the chromosomes. There may be some non-essential genes on these plasmids.
- Flagella, pili, and fimbriae are examples of cell appendages that extend from the cell surface of many prokaryotic cells.
- The prokaryotic cells’ most prevalent appendages are flagella.
- These resemble tail-like features that aid in cell movement.
- Cells to diverse surfaces are attached by thin filamentous structures called fimbriae.
- Longer filaments called “pilli” play various roles in various cell types.
- The sex pilli brings two cells together as DNA molecules are transferred by conjugation, is one example of this.
Division of Prokaryotes (Reproduction)
As was already indicated, prokaryotic cells divide asexually without creating gametes. Prokaryotes have a few asexual reproductive methods, including:
- Binary fission is a kind of asexual reproduction in which a single living cell or organelle doubles in size before separating into two similar daughter cells, each of which has the ability to grow to the size of the original cell or organelle.
- Archaea, cyanobacteria, and eubacteria are examples of prokaryotes that reproduce by binary fission.
- The genetic material of the parent cell is shared evenly between the two daughter cells throughout this procedure. As a result, the freshly generated prokaryotic cells show no genetic variation.
Steps of binary fission
- The DNA of the cell divides into two similar molecules that are both propelled toward the cell membrane.
- The cell then multiplies by two and the membrane begins to gently split, containing a copy of the DNA in every newborn cell.
- When the cell membrane division is complete, the cell wall is produced between the two strands of DNA, dividing the parent cell into two similar daughter cells.
- Recombination is another asexual method of reproduction in bacterial organisms.
- In this case, transduction, transformation, and conjugation are utilised to transfer genetic material from one prokaryotic cell to another.
- Genes are conveyed by the sex pilli, which connects two cells during conjugation.
- By consuming genetic material from the external environment and incorporating it into the bacterial chromosome, the prokaryotic cell undergoes transformation.
- Genes are exchanged during transduction by viral infection. The target gene is first taken up by the bacteriophage, which then spreads it to another cell.
- The only single-celled creatures present in every habitat on Earth are called bacteria.
- The peptidoglycan that makes up the bacterial cell wall gives it strength and thickness.
- Because certain bacteria only produce capsules, other prokaryotic cells might not include capsules.
- Bacteria have chromosomes, which are circular coils of genetic material.
- The bacteria E. coli, Streptomyces spp., Pseudomonas spp., etc. are examples of bacterial cells.
Archaeal cells (Archaea)
- As primordial unicellular creatures, archaeal cells share characteristics with bacterial cells.
- Hot springs, the ocean, and marshes are among the harsh conditions where archaeal cells are most frequently found.
- Archaeal cells lack the capsule, and their cell walls are comprised of proteins called pseudopeptidoglycan.
- Similar to how archaeal cells are shielded from hostile conditions by a monolayer of phospholipid in their cell membrane.
- Halobacterium spp., Thermoplasma spp., Sulfolobus spp., etc., are a few examples of archaeal cells.
FAQs on Prokaryotes
What are three examples of Prokaryotes?
Any three examples of Prokaryotes are blue-green algae, E. coli, and mycoplasma.
Do Prokaryotes have ribosomes?
Yes, Prokaryotes have ribosomes. The ribosome is of 70S type.
Do Prokaryotes have a nucleus?
No, Prokaryotes do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, but they do have a nucleoid region in the cytoplasm that contains the genetic material.
Do Prokaryotes have mitochondria?
No, Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria.
Is DNA found in Prokaryotes?
Yes, DNA is found as genetic material and extrachromosomal plastids in Prokaryotes.
How do Prokaryotes divide?
Prokaryotes divide through asexual methods like binary fission and conjugation.
- A clearly-defined nucleus that is membrane-bound as well as other membrane-bound organelles make eukaryotes cells complicated in both structure and function.
- The terms “eu” and “karyon,” which in Greek mean “truth” and “nucleus,” respectively, are the origin of the word “eukaryote.”
- The structural makeup of eukaryotic cells is more complex than that of prokaryotes.
- These developments enable eukaryotic cells to carry out more intricate tasks than prokaryotic cells.
Characteristics of Eukaryotes
- The following is a list of the basic characteristics of eukaryotic cells:
- The size of eukaryotes ranges from 10 to 100 m in diameter, making them substantially bigger than bacterial cells.
- Eukaryotes have a wide range of shapes depending on the kind of cell. While some cells have a fixed structure like plant cells, others are pleiomorphic like amoeba. In addition to functional modifications, environmental factors have a substantial effect on the shape of cells.
- The structure of eukaryotic cells is more complicated, with several organelles attached to membranes and a well-defined nucleus.
- DNA is the linear genetic material found in eukaryotes, and it has several replication sources.
- Eukaryotic cells have a sophisticated nuclear membrane covering their nucleus. Instead of the circular chromosomes found in prokaryotes, the nucleus’ chromosomes are complex with histone proteins to form linear chromosomes.
- Some eukaryotes have cell walls that are composed of cellulose or other carbohydrates.
- In contrast to other eukaryotic cells, yeast cells replicate asexually by mitosis or fission.
Eukaryotes Structure (components/parts)
Prokaryotic cells are approximately 10,000 times smaller in volume than eukaryotes, which are substantially larger in size. Eukaryotic cells are made up of a variety of membrane-bound and membrane-less organelles that work in unison to maintain the structure and function of the cell. The following are the common components found in eukaryotic cells:
- Some eukaryotic cells, including those of some protists, fungi, and plants, include a cell wall.
- Cellulose microfibrils and a network of glycans embedded in a matrix of pectin polysaccharides make up the cell wall of plants and some protists.
- In fungal cells, the cell wall is made up of a distinct polymer called chitin, which results in a different cell wall composition.
- However, eukaryotic cells also have a comparable role for the cell wall. The cell wall supports and shapes the eukaryotic cells.
Cell membrane/ Plasma membrane/ Cytoplasmic membrane
- The cell membrane of eukaryotic cells is found within the cell wall.
- The cell membrane is the outermost layer of non-wall-containing cells, insulating the inside from the external environment.
- A phospholipid bilayer makes up the plasma membrane, and between the two layers are embedded integral proteins.
- Eukaryotes and prokaryotes both have a similar cell membrane structure.
- The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is a fluid-filled chamber that contains all of the cell’s internal organelles and other substances.
- The cytoplasm consists of a gelatinous material termed cytosol and a water-soluble solution composed of minerals, ions, and other molecules.
- Compared to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have bigger cell volume, which results in a higher quantity of cytoplasm.
- The nucleus is an organelle located in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
- It is more complex than the prokaryotic nucleus because the nuclear membrane that surrounds it is comparable to the plasma membrane in composition.
- A eukaryotic cell’s genome is found inside the nucleus, where it coexists with other proteins like the histone protein.
- The DNA molecules are grouped into linear, more orderly chromosomes inside the nucleus.
- The nucleus also has a protein-containing nucleolus that contains the ribosomes and rRNA but is not encircled by a membrane.
- The ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are of the 80S type and comprise 60S and 40S subunits.
- Proteins, 5S RNA, 28S RNA, and other components make up the bigger subunit, whereas 18S RNA and 33 proteins make up the smaller subunit.
- Eukaryotic cells have ribosomes that are either free in the cytoplasm or linked to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Mitochondria and Plastids
- Membrane-bound organelles present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells include mitochondria and plastids.
- Extrachromosomal DNA controls the operations of the organelles in both mitochondria and plastids.
- The primary physiological activity of the cell is carried out in the inner layer of the mitochondrial membrane, which is folded into cristae. The outer membrane of the mitochondria is composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
- Eukaryotic cells of plants and algae include plastids, which give the cell its colour. The green pigment chlorophyll, which is present in plastids as well, is necessary for photosynthesis.
- The movement, nutrition, and sensing of many eukaryotic cells are mediated by cytoplasmic projections like flagella and cilia.
- The tubulin proteins that make up these structures are mostly sustained by microfilaments and microtubules.
- The cytoplasm also contains cytoskeletal elements, which give cells their form and support.
Division of Eukaryotes (Reproduction)
While some eukaryotic cells can exclusively divide asexually, others can divide both sexually and asexually.
- All eukaryotic cells, with the exception of the reproductive cells that create the male and female gametes, are capable of asexual reproduction.
- Mitosis is the most typical kind of asexual reproduction in which the cell doubles in size before being split into two identical daughter cells.
- Unicellular protists and fungal cells divide via budding, in which new cells form a chain on the surface of dividing cells.
- Primitive eukaryotic cells exhibit processes like binary fission and multiple fission.
- It is also known that some fungi may split and reproduce asexually through sporulation.
- The sexual process divides the reproductive cells in both plants and animals.
- In this procedure, the cell underwent meiosis to divide into four daughter cells, each of which contained half as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
- Different eukaryotic cells differ from one another due to sexual reproduction.
- Plant cells are an example of an eukaryote, and they have a thick cellulose-based cell wall that gives them form and structure.
- A bigger vacuole in the cytoplasm of every plant cell regulates the cell’s turgor pressure.
- Additionally, unlike other eukaryotic cells, plant cells feature chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, which is crucial for the process of photosynthesis.
- Another kind of Eukaryotes without a hard cell wall is animal cells.
- Animal cells lack a cell wall, which permits them to take on diverse forms and facilitates phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
- Animal cells vary from plant cells in that they lack chloroplasts and have a smaller vacuole.
- Animal cells also have the centriole, which produces the mitotic machinery needed for cell division.
- In that they share a stiff cell wall with plant cells, fungus cells are comparable to plant cells.
- However, chitin, not cellulose, makes up the cell wall.
- Some fungi are unicellular, similar to yeasts, and contain microscopic pores in their cell membranes that permit the exchange of cytoplasm and other organelles between the cells.
- When compared to plant or animal cells, protists are the unicellular eukaryotes that are most primitive.
- Some protists may have a cell wall, but the majority do not.
- While certain protists are known to have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, others may have pigments that are used for photosynthetic processes.
- Cilia and flagella, which help the cells move, are known to exist in protozoa.
47 Differences Between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
|1||Term Origin||Greek for “primitive nucleus”||Greek for “true nucleus”|
|2||Definition||Organisms are made up of cell(s) that lack a cell nucleus or any membrane-encased organelles.||Organisms are made up of cells that possess a membrane-bound nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles.|
|3||Major groups||Bacteria, Archae, and Bluegreen algae||Algae, fungi, protozoa, plants, animals|
|4||Origin||Around 3.5 billion years ago.||Around 2 billion years ago.|
|5||Size (approximate)||0.5-3.0 μm||>5 μm|
|6||Cell Type||Usually unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular)||Usually multicellular|
|8||Nucleus Location||Free in the cytoplasm, attached to mesosomes||Contained in membrane-bound structure|
|9||Nuclear membrane||No nuclear membrane.||Classic membrane present.|
|11||Chromosome number||One||More than one|
|13||Genes||Expressed in groups called operons.||Expressed individually|
|14||Genome||DNA haploid genome||DNA diploid genome|
|15||DNA base ratio (G+C %)||28-73||About 40|
|16||DNA wrapping on proteins||Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.||Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones.|
|17||Genome nature||Efficient and compact with little repetitive DNA.||With large amounts of non-coding repetitive DNA.|
|19||Ribosomes (sedimentation coefficient)||70S (50S + 30S).Smaller.||80S (60S + 40S). Larger.|
|20||Ribosome’s location||Free in the cytoplasm or bound to the cell membrane||Attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum|
|24||Mesosomes||Present. Performs the function of Golgi bodies and mitochondria and also helps in the separation of the chromosome during cell division.||Absent|
|27||Chloroplasts||Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm||Present (in plants)|
|28||Fimbriae||Prokaryotes may have pili and fimbriae (appendage that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria).||Absent|
|29||Microtubules||Absent or rare||Present|
|30||Centrosome||Absent||Present except in flowering plants.|
|31||Cytoskeleton||May be absent||Present|
|32||Glycocalyx||Present||Only in some|
|34||Cytoplasmic membrane||Does not contain sterols (except Mycoplasma)||Contains sterols|
|35||Cell wall||Complex structure containing protein, lipids, and peptidoglycans||Present for plant cells and fungi; otherwise absent|
|37||Movement||Simple flagellum, if present||Complex flagellum, if present|
|38||Respiration||Via cytoplasmic membrane||Via mitochondria|
|39||Energy production site||Electron transport chain located in the cell membrane||Within membrane-bound mitochondria|
|40||Metabolic rate||Higher due to larger surface area to volume ratio||Comparatively slow|
|41||Reproduction||Asexual (binary fission)||Sexual and asexual/ Mitotic division|
|42||Generation time||Shorter||Comparatively longer|
|43||Genetic Recombination||Partial, unidirectional transfer||Meiosis and fusion of gametes|
|44||Zygote||Merozygotic (partially diploid)||Diploid|
|45||Extrachromosomal||Plasmid||Inside the mitochondria|
|46||DNA replication||Occurs in the cytoplasm.||Occurs in the nucleus.|
|47||Transcription and translation||Occurs simultaneously.||Transcription occurs in the nucleus and then translation occurs in the cytoplasm.|
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