Diploid Vs Haploid-Definition, 12 Major Differences, Examples

Diploid Vs Haploid-Definition

Diploid Definition

  • A cell or organism with diploid chromosomes, one from each parent, contains paired chromosomes.
  • In most organisms, somatic cells are normally diploid while reproductive cells are often haploid.
  • In diploid cells, the two chromosomes inherited from two parents are present in two homologous copies.
  • Apart from a few species of rats, the vast majority of mammals are believed to be diploid.
  • However, there have been investigations that deny the existence of polyploidy in mammals.
  • When a cell contains more chromosomes than there are diploid chromosomes, this state is known as polyploidy.
  • The majority of organisms which reproduce by mitosis have 2n chromosomes, resulting in diploid cells.
  • In mitosis, a cell containing 2n chromosomes divides them to produce 4n. Eventually, the cell divides into two daughter cells, each containing two chromosomes, leading to the generation of diploid daughter cells.
  • As a result, all cells’ chromosomal numbers are in conversation with mitosis. The primary method of growth in all somatic cells is mitosis division.
  • Following mitosis, diploid daughter cells are produced that have the same genetic makeup as the parent cells.
  • Following the fertilisation of two haploid cells, diploid cells are also created, resulting from fertilised eggs.
  • Varied species have different numbers of chromosomes, and the number does not always reflect the complexity of the organism. In comparison to the dog, which has 72 chromosomes, humans have 46 diploid chromosomes.
  • Additionally, certain viruses may produce viral particles that are diploid, containing two copies of their RNA genome per viral particle, or both.
  • HIV, retroviruses, and T lymphocytic viruses are the viruses containing diploid genomes.
  • Several plants within the kingdom of plants contains two distinct stages of life, which causes the alternating of generations. The sporophytic phase of a plant’s lifecycle is referred to as the diploid phase.
  • The sporophytic stage predominates in the Pteridophyta group of plants, which includes fern-like plants.

Haploid Definition

  • A cell or organism with just one copy of every chromosome is referred to as a haploid or monoploid.
  • Haploid cells have half as many chromosomes as diploid or somatic cells.
  • The number of chromosomes typically present in gametes is also sometimes referred to as being “haploid.”
  • Under these conditions, when the somatic cells are tetraploid, the gametes will still be referred to as haploid despite having two sets of chromosomes.
  • When the nucleus of a diploid eukaryotic cell has only a  pair of chromosomes, it is considered haploid. Haploid organisms are ones whose chromosomes are haploid.
  • The majority of eukaryotic organisms possess haploid gametes, or sex cells. This includes both sperm and ovum, or male and female sex cells, respectively.
  • After meiosis division occurs during sexual reproduction, haploid cells are produced. During meiosis, a diploid cell multiplies its chromosomes to produce four pairs of chromosomes. Following this, the cell divides, becoming four cells, each with its own set of chromosomes.
  • In certain cases, such as in male wasps, bees, and ants, haploid eggs grow to become creatures without fertilisation. Thus, these creatures begin as unfertilized eggs.
  • In order for diploid organisms to retain a stable quantity of chromosomes, the haploid phase is required. The haploid cells then fuse to generate diploid cells, which have two pairs of chromosomes.
  • The alternation of generation occurs when the haploid and diploid stages occur successively in plants, certain algae, and some fungi. The gametophytic stage is the name given to the haploid stage.
  • Nevertheless, unlike mosses, the bulk of bryophytes are at the gametophytic stage. These organisms spend more time in the haploid stage.

Key Differences (Diploid vs Haploid)

Basis for Comparison Diploid Haploid
Definition Diploid is a cell or organism that has paired or two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. Haploid or monoploid is a cell or organism that has just a single copy of each chromosome.
Cell division These cells are formed after mitotic cell division. These cells are formed after meiotic cell division.
Number of chromosomes Because they have two sets of chromosomes, they have double the number of chromosomes as in haploid cells. Because they have a single set of chromosomes, they have half the number of chromosomes as in diploid cells.
Type of cell Diploid condition is often seen in somatic cells of various vertebrates. Haploid condition is observed in sex cells or gametes of various vertebrates.
Similarity with the parent cells Diploid cells formed after mitosis are genetically identical to their parent cell. The haploid cells after meiosis are not genetically identical to their parents due to crossing over.
Alternation of generation The diploid stage of the lifecycle is called the sporophytic stage. The haploid stage of the lifecycle is called the gametophytic stage.
Diploid stage is less predominant than the haploid stage in the life cycle of most bryophyte like mosses. The haploid stage is more predominant than the diploid stage in the life cycle of most bryophyte like mosses.
The diploid stage is more predominant than the haploid stage in the life cycle of Pteridophyta like a fern. The haploid stage is less predominant than the diploid stage in the life cycle of most Pteridophyta like a fern.
Type of eggs Diploid organisms develop from fertilized eggs. Haploid organisms develop from unfertilized eggs.
Number of chromosomes in humans Diploid cells have 46 chromosomes in humans. Haploid cells have 23 chromosomes in humans.
Importance Diploid cells are important for the growth and development of organisms. Haploid cells are important for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity.
Organisms Some diploid organisms include humans, frogs, fishes, and most plants. Some haploid organisms include male ants, bees, and wasps.

Examples of diploid cells

Somatic cells

  • All cells in an organism’s body, excluding sex or gamete cells, are known as somatic cells.
  • Somatic cells make up all cells, with the exception of the reproductive system’s proliferating cells.
  • Somatic cells have two sets of chromosomes and are diploid. These cells undergo mitotic division to create new, chromosome-identical cells.
  • One pair of chromosomes is inherited from the mother and the other from the father.
  • Certain animals could contain tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes) or hexaploid (six sets of chromosomes) somatic cells (six sets of chromosomes).
  • Typically, haploid cells are less susceptible to spontaneous mutations than somatic cells.
  • Since there are over 220 different kinds of somatic cells in a person, the makeup and nature of the cells vary.
  • There are 46 chromosomes in each of a human being’s somatic cells.

Examples of haploid cells

Sex cells/ Gametes

In many species that reproduce sexually, the reproductive cells known as gametes or sex cells are present.

These cells are referred to as haploid cells because they contain half as many chromosomes as somatic cells.

Sex cells are produced by meiosis division of the proliferative cells of the reproductive organelles, such as the ovaries and testes.

The two types of gametes are male and female, with male gametes carrying the paternal pair of chromosomes and female gametes carrying the maternal set.

These cells are important because they provide the means to ensure that sexually reproducing organisms always have the same number of chromosomes.

There are 23 chromosomes in each of the sex cells in humans.

References and Sources

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