Angiosperm Vs Gymnosperm-Definition, 27 Differences, Examples

Angiosperm Vs Gymnosperm Overview

Angiosperm Definition

The biggest and most varied group of plants in the kingdom of Plantae are flowering plants, or angiosperms.

  • 80 percent of the green plants on Earth are made up of these species.
  • Angiosperms may be found in a variety of habitats, including deserts, deep sea surfaces, and mountains.
  • These vascular plants produce both flowers and seeds. They come in a variety of shapes, including plants, trees, bushes, etc.
  • The reproductive organ of plants, the flower, contains both male and female reproductive organs.
  • After fertilisation, the flowers develop into fruits. The fruits contain developed seeds that are encapsulated. Angiosperms are classified as monocotyledons or dicotyledons, depending on how many seed leaves they have.
  • Angiosperm tissues and cells are specialised to carry out certain tasks inside the plant.
  • These plants contain specific vascular tissues called xylem and phloem that aid in moving nutrients, water, and minerals to various parts of the plant.
  • Because angiosperm plants are so varied, there is a wide range of sizes among them, with the tallest blooming plants reaching 100 metres in height and the shortest measuring two millimetres.
  • The majority of blooming plants are either woody or herbaceous. While some are biennials, others are annuals.
  • During the first half of their development, they create the vegetative portions of the plant, while the reproductive components, such as the flowers, are formed afterwards.
  • A stem, roots, and leaves make up the fundamental components of every angiosperm species.
  • Both the taproot and the fibrous root system in angiosperms grow vertically downward.
  • The taproot gives rise to lateral roots that spread out either horizontally or diagonally.
  • However, in the case of a fibrous root, the main roots are at least as long as the subsidiary roots and often considerably longer.
  • The stem, which carries the flowers and leaves, is the primary axis of the plant.
  • Different varieties of leaves are present, and they all stick to the stem. The venation of the leaves may be parallel or reticulate.

Gymnosperm Definition

Gymnosperms are vascular plants with bare, exposed seeds that are not even visible until they are fully developed.

  • Gymnosperm seeds are often seen as cone-shaped objects.
  • Angiosperm tissues and cells are specialised to carry out certain tasks inside the plant.
  • These plants contain specific vascular tissues called xylem and phloem that aid in moving nutrients, water, and minerals to various parts of the plant.
  • The majority of gymnosperms have shortened leaves called microsporophylls on the male pollen cones, also known as microstrobili.
  • At the base of the microsporophylls, pollen sacs, also known as microsporangia, are created.
  • Megastrobili, or female cones, are sometimes found on the same plant as the male cones or on a separate plant altogether.
  • Megastrobili have smaller leaves called megasporophylls, which contain megasporangium, similar to microstrobili.
  • The cells in the sporangium go through meiosis to create haploid cells, which are subsequently disseminated for fertilisation via various techniques.
  • The embryo develops and has two or more cotyledons after fertilisation.
  • While pines and other conifers may have multiple (8–18) cotyledons, plants like cycads only have two.
  • The plant’s seeds do not develop into fruits and are not coated with them.
  • The seeds are still visible as cones.
  • The stem, roots, and leaves that make up gymnosperm’s fundamental structure are comparable to those seen in angiosperm.
  • Gymnosperms have scale-or needle-like leaves, and their stems are largely made of wood.
  • Depending on the plant, the root system may also be either a taproot or a fibrous system.


Key Differences (Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm)

Basis for Comparison Angiosperm Gymnosperm
Definition Angiosperms are the flowering plants that are the largest and most diverse groups of plants in the kingdom Plantae. Gymnosperms are vascular plants that have exposed or naked seeds that are not even visible until maturity.
Seed Seeds are enclosed inside an ovary that matures to form a fruit. Seeds are exposed and might be present in the form of cones.
Flowers These are flowering plants and thus have flowers. These are non-flowering plants and thus do not have flowers.
Reproductive system These are mostly bisexual while some might be unisexual. These are mostly unisexual while some might be bisexual.
Stem The stem is made up of hardwood. The stem is made up of softwood.
Leaves The leaves in these plants are broad and flat. The leaves are either needle-like or scale-like.
Xylem Xylem forms vessels in angiosperms. Xylem does not form vessels in gymnosperms.
Structure Sepals and petals are present. Sepal and petals are absent.
Sporophylls contain stout thalamus. Sporophylls have a long elongated axis.
  The female reproductive part is developed into a carpel. The female reproductive part is developed into a wooden structure.
  Stigma and style are present. Gymnosperms do not have stigma and style.
  Microsporophyll is present in the form of a stamen. Stamen is further divided into an anther and a filament. The microsporophyll is present as a broad sterile head where there is no distinction between the anther and the filament.
  The ovary of the carpel contains ovules which are attached by means of placenta. The ovules in gymnosperms are present on the megasporophyll without any placenta.
  Ovules are present on a stalk. Ovules of gymnosperms are sessile.
  Two thin layers of micropyle surround an ovule. Three layers of micropyle surround an ovule.
  Most angiosperms have four pollen sacs or microsporangia. The number of microsporangia ranges from two to hundreds.
Male gamete The male gamete has no flagella and thus is deposited on the egg. The male gamete has flagella and thus can swim to the egg.
Embryo sac The embryo sac is seven celled and eight nucleated. The embryo sac is parenchymatous and large.
Archegonia Angiosperms have no archegonia. Gymnosperms have distinct archegonia present.
Cotyledons The seeds have one or two cotyledons. The seeds have two or many cotyledons.
Endosperm The endosperm is triploid. The endosperm is haploid.
Dispersion The primary mode of dispersion is animals. The primary mode of dispersion is wind.
Fertilization Double fertilization takes place where both male gametes are functional. One performs the generative fertilization while the other performs vegetative fertilization. Only one type of fertilization takes place, and only one male gamete is functional.
Development of seed The embryo develops inside the ovary which finally matures into a fruit. The embryo develops on the megasporophyll, and no fruit is formed.
Lifecycle These plants are mostly season. Some might be perennial or biennials. Most of these plants are evergreen plants.
Uses Most angiosperms have economic value as they can be used as ornaments or decorations. Most gymnosperms provide softwood which can be used to make paper, plywood, and lumber.
Examples Mustard, Rose, Spinach, Cauliflower, etc. Pine, Cycad, Sago palm, Sequoia, etc.

Examples of Angiosperm


With more than 350 genera, the range of the mustard plant is rather global. These are mostly found in the northern hemisphere’s temperate zone.

A cool-season crop that can be cultivated in brief growing seasons is mustard.

Although the seedlings may withstand light cold to some extent, a strong frost might kill the plant.

After being planted for around five weeks, mustard plants begin to produce blossoms. The blossoms have a vivid yellow colour to attract pollinating insects to the flowers.

The blossom subsequently turns into a fruit that contains mustard seeds.

Muscle soreness, rheumatic pain, and rheumatism have all historically been treated with mustard seeds and oil.

Cooking in Germany, Pakistan, and India makes substantial use of oil. Mustard may be eaten whole, ground, or powdered, or it can be made into pastes or sauces for use in cooking.


With more than 30,000 species found worldwide, roses make up the third-largest plant family.

There are several kinds of roses, with hues ranging from red to pink to yellow. Roses have distinctive scents that vary depending on the weather when they are in bloom.

Insects are drawn to the vibrant rose flower’s colour, aiding in pollination. The bulb develops into fruits that contain several seeds after pollination.

The flower doesn’t bloom for around 6 to 8 weeks after being planted in the spring.

Instead of planting roses from seeds, grafting is used since it boosts the survivability of the plants.

Roses are ornamental plants that are only cultivated for aesthetic reasons. Certain roses are grown for the purpose of extracting and creating fragrances.

Examples of Gymnosperms


The most common gymnosperm, conifers are woody cone-bearing seed plants having vascular tissues, with the majority being trees and a few shrubs.

Coniferous plants develop in the form of a triangle with distinctively long, needle-shaped leaves.

Almost everywhere on the globe, conifers are observed to be growing. The northern hemisphere’s boreal forest is where they are most prominently found.

After fertilisation, cones with exposed seeds are produced by the megastrobilis, which serves as the female reproductive organs.

They are important commercially since they are softwood, which is only used to make paper and lumber. They are very important for growing pine nuts.

Conifers are well-known for their pine, yew, redwood, and cedar species, among others.


Only around 15-20 species of cycads may be found worldwide in both the western and eastern hemispheres.

They have a single, thick, cylindrical, woody stem that is shaped like a cylinder, and a crown of enormous, hard, stiff, evergreen compound leaves that create a rosette.

Cycads are deciduous and distinct from other cycads in that female plants do not develop seed cones; instead, male plants develop a group of leaf-life structures (megasporophyll) containing seeds.

Several cycad species, including C. circinalis and C. bedomei, are planted in gardens as decorative plants.

The term “sago palm” refers to a kind of starch that is often derived from the stems of various species.

The leaves of the C. revoluta plant are used to make hats, baskets, and mats. The leaves may also be utilised for various ornamental reasons, such as flower arrangements.

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